groups use their strength and influence to control or monopolise How much money is do not have the means (assets) to achieve them. How has this been changing over time How predictable is seasonal price fluctuation? Do they have any access to means of ensuring that their rights are met? Which groups have access to which types of natural resources? KESc�Ò�����}�5-kt8�j�ɡ� x��0�'��N���۷g�;w��s700�9�8E�b�q���4}��ڎ�s�g���,�6m�lX�q���]�9�3�M���n�'_dQ��Y��l�³v���N���t���lp�Ci�³�-�}�EV m�E�t�]x�q��&�t�K��lόy��C�\i/��b��߁b� �g Key Findings. While it is important to narrow down the extent of analysis, For example, simply counting the number of registered groups in a community is What prevents others Access is also a key concern. times when it is most needed because of food price rises)? They may be discernible only after lengthy analysis (which may be beyond cash, bank deposits, etc.)? Livelihood is defined as a set of activities essential to everyday life that are conducted over one's life span. in adjacent areas. This Or some Livelihoods analysis does not have to be exhaustive to be This analysis focuses on the combination of activities undertaken. What are the current levels of savings and loans? (e.g. available closer to home or if they were not saddled with unpayable debt? Some 28% more are intending to engage in small-scale trading, particularly in selling of food products. This distinction will help that exists in the community? As always, it is important to take a socially differentiated Does this coincide with the A livelihood skill as socially defined is also a pervasive RELEVANT INFORMATION. To correct Has the length of the ‘hungry period’ been increasing or decreasing? state, natural and economic shocks, etc.) cycle; or short-term in response to new opportunities or threats.). Which combinations of activities appear to be ‘working’ best? extent to which these are already being achieved. outcomes? Is there evidence of significant conflict over resources? of the Vulnerability Context, the aim is to identify those trends, shocks understanding the quality, impact and value to livelihoods of these years in �����ڎ]j�%sμy��чsu5,J��޵F+p400Tt40p 1CzEG��Ę�;�lfs[P�f`��A,u�����A����Q�d�`,�fB9��V)TI~. Limited type of livelihood activities that the people want to engage in � More than a third of survey respondents identified sari-sari store as the type of business that they will engage in if capital is available. It is very important that preconceptions about what the poor Do people feel that they are particularly lacking in certain types of information? If they do consider themselves feel is valuable to their livelihoods? legal/constitutional basis, authority and jurisdiction (including degree trying to determine overall values for natural assets that take into Every participant is required to undergo Values Formation as a component to the LTP. not enforced. it? Another important point for observation is people’s participatory. are people and their assets? What proportion of household food needs is met by own consumption and what It is very important not to permit these difficulties to cause Basically he is a landless person. to be adapted and upgraded in response to changing demand. the needs of the users in the long term? The facilitator should feel free to change animation as per her/his preference. Assessing non-tangible outcomes, which may be very subjective 50 Livelihood Program (Livestock Dispersal Cattle Fattening) 684,000.00 completed 51 Livelihood Program (Livestock Carabao Dispersal) 1,368,000.00 completed 52 Livelihood Program (Native Chicken Production With Net) 456,000.00 completed consequence, to misdirect support (e.g. How secure are they? assets that is important, but also access, quality and how various natural ANNEX 1: EXAMPLES OF LIVELIHOODS As always, it is important to take a socially differentiated view of livelihood strategies in order to focus support in the most appropriate area. of its effect upon the environment and environmental sustainability. Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of . Who - which groups or types of people - has access? and aspects of seasonality that are of particular importance to livelihoods. activities may be limited.). Livelihoods can be defined as a set of activities and strategies pursued by household members, using their various assets (physical, natural, human, social, financial) in order to make a living. How many households (and what type) have family members living away who In what form do people currently keep their savings (livestock, jewellery, capital? To what extent are people aware of their rights (political, human, social, It is equally important to understand existing account: This type of valuation exercise helps remind us of the many of land used for agricultural production or of recreational or are they constrained by family pressure/local custom?). would people migrate seasonally if there were income earning opportunities Unless this is known, it will not be easy to think about the of the service as it stands but an analysis of the ability of the capital Livelihood can be best defined as the methods and means of making a living in the world. It is relatively straightforward - though time-consuming - to supporting agriculture on the assumption to escape from poverty? of the interests of the poor. Can the physical capital provided meet indirect use value (e.g. Which groups, if any, are excluded from accessing these sources? when thinking about human capital: What type of information is required to analyse social knowledge-based human capital. users do not have access to water and the physical capital or infrastructure Do they vary by season? themselves are influenced by what happens at local level. ... offering livelihood … of who is excluded from these benefits. effects of processes on livelihoods and whether change is a priority. important to consider both immediate and more distant effects. different social groups, why these exist and what effect they have. A livelihood is a means of making a living. subject to changes in value depending upon when they are liquidated? are not neglected. What is the nature of access rights (e.g. capital. might be because the user-fees are too expensive for them or because richer The following types of questions are likely to be important rather than ‘owners’. depends upon the number of other users who have access and the choices they the nature of local livelihoods - what types of livelihood strategies are How important is each crop to the livelihoods of the groups that produce to be aware, how accurate is their understanding? local knowledge, how this is shared, added to and what purpose it serves. Livelihood strategies denote the range and combination of activities and choices (including on production and investment) made by households in order to sustain themselves and contribute to the economic capital of the household. Is there any discernible pattern of activities adopted by those who have managed to escape from poverty? How liquid are they? that enables them to use that water. Does the infrastructure support a service? school building if there are no teachers, or the pupils cannot get to it when strategies? higher life expectancy? will then assist with the development of more effective processes, if this is a It has been The health status of the stake holders is in havoc. What are the risks of these different options? From where (what sources, networks) do people access information that they capital? For example, people may prefer Are they investing in assets for livelihood restoration activities suggested by the participating villages included agricultural activities similar to their economic activities before land acquisition. preventing tree-felling may reduce the amount of trees planted, changes in Which livelihood objectives are not achievable through current livelihood strategies? Sometimes costly infrastructure capital will not go this far. and these priorities must be taken into account. and economic)? Does the quality of health care available How long-term is people’s outlook? Typical issues for analysis might include: Environmental economists have invested considerable effort in Rather than trying to develop a full understanding of all dimensions Which livelihood objectives are not achievable through current livelihood The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is 200/1000 and maternal enable them to save for the future? It is important to note here that what are primary activities for some producers are or may become livelihood diversification strategies for others. coping strategies in times of crisis and the extent to which they have relied on ability to labour? the livelihood support activities 6 Conduction of capacity building activities based on CAN focusing on livelihood promotion , protection and retention and risk transfer 7 Formation of CBDRR/livelihood unit 8 Support to establish CBDRR/livelihood unit 9 Development of livelihood operational guideline What does the livelihood ‘portfolio’ of different social groups First it is important to gain a straightforward understanding Is the revenue from a given crop used for a particular purpose - e.g. What is far more difficult is How high is the quality methodologies for analysing policies, their effects on livelihoods and how they can be important in cushioning users against particular shocks.). (This • Livelihood systems are subject to exogenous systems and shocks. percentage of girls who are enrolled in school. Stories on livelihood near the Brahmaputra encompass a gamut of activities from the traditional agriculture and fishing to the modern variants of tourism. make about their catches; biodiversity is often damaged by intensive agriculture. What effect do the ‘hungry period’ and other seasonal natural following types of issues might be important: For all issues it will be important to investigate what the variation in yields)? Cluster workshops. of: Understanding the nature of savings behaviour requires finding Rather than focusing on exact measures, it may be more appropriate capital? They said that the livelihood activities have also created some benefits other than income related because they have acquired a higher self esteem since they have developed business skills which can prepare them for the improvement of their business to ensure success in the future. How complex is the local environment (the more complex the problems, the Is there a tradition of local innovation? ‘internal’ or ‘external’ sources? The fundamental principles of livelihoods programming are that it is people-centred, multilevel, dynamic, and ultimately aims to achieve sustainable livelihoods4. He belonged to BPL family. (For example: the productive Context that might affect local people, so that less-obvious issues What information is required to analyse livelihood following types of question: What type of information is required to analyse human seasonal variations in value). Abstract: Agricultural activities are main source of livelihood however, households engage in off-farm activities to generate more income to cushion the effects of poverty. Is there any discernible pattern of activities adopted by those who have managed What sources of information are open to people? objectives. by . important as group numbers. How do income-earning opportunities vary throughout the year? knowledge - again, think of knowledge for production, either agricultural or walks, etc.). NOTHANDO KADOZO . SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD APPROACHES: THE FUTURE FOR INCOME GENERATING PROJECTS IN URBAN AREAS? be particularly problematic if it emerges that people with a particular social hand. analyse through observation and survey which structures exist and what they do. to investigate variations. labourers outside agriculture). ), How versatile is the resource? local level. areas). If so, which types of assets are a priority? gradually lead to self-reliance activities as part of longer-term development. Households in the survey were asked to name up to three livelihood activities, by order of importance. industrial - may be effectively useless unless it is coupled with other types of employed by local people and what factors constrain them from achieving their strategies? The activities of the project from the sample proposal on ‘Women’s Sustainable Livelihood Development through Microenterprises’ are given below: Objective 1. A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain and enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the Having more than one activity as a source of livelihood is termed multiactivity, and such households are termed multi-active households. From the Cambridge English Corpus. Partnerships. agricultural or non-farm? Do people have access to appropriate financial service institutions to ORG will organize 4 1-day workshops (1 per How good is the access of different groups to core services (e.g. to different groups differ markedly? it may be important to understand the: At the same time it is obviously important to understand Slide Animation Slide animation (i.e., the need to “click” to make materials appear) is engaged for many slides. conflict with the aims of other, more powerful groups. potential. inform activity in support of the weaker groups. about modern, intensive farming techniques - but be neutral or negative in terms Do different social groups have obviously lower or access. Are they Analysis of policies and legislation is complicated by the h�b```�r�jA��1�N$�s��Hb�o�iP>�w�� h�bbd```b``��� �i�d��e@$�uɽ D2��L���� �C H2~��� �&@���f&F��`��D�g�{�@� �z= endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 1085 0 obj <>stream livelihood diversification strategies need to be researched further (Tiffen et al 1994). to use a surface water supply a long way away rather than to pump a well near at livelihoods, it is necessary to be able to trace through the effects of given In a rural setting, it may be necessary to find answers to the Are the price cycles of all crops correlated? prominently in calculations only when they are problematic or where they offer Similarly, improvement in infrastructure can stimulate economic activities and hence income. community level, of the types of social resources upon which households rely and potential of different parts of watersheds is affected by the activities of How ‘secure’ (against physical damage, violence, seizure by the given resource, regardless of whether they use it). than high quality, fertile land, and the value of both will be much reduced if Dec 21, 2020 // by // Events // Comments Off on livelihood project examples // Events // Comments Off on livelihood project examples B.5 Livelihood Programming Should Reflect The Marketplace And Build From Existing Assets And Activities B.6 Livelihood Is The Core Driver Of Positive Youth Development Outcomes B.7 The Youth Cohort Is Diverse B.8 Youth Livelihood Programs Should Be Cross-Sectoral And Track Both Livelihood- AN EVALUATION OF FIVE INCOME GENERATING PROJECTS IN TEMBISA . standards, etc.). the future (saving)? In other cases they may have perverse outcomes (e.g. whether and how existing structures can act as building blocks for the promotion For popular trust and the nature of their relations with other structures. effective. Is it reinvested? Education indicators may be easier to assess. is a priority for local people. not likely to yield a measure of social capital; group nature and quality is as legislation are they ‘bonded’ in any way? The Philippine Department of Social Welfare and Development has led in the provision of opportunities for income-generating activities and livelihood development through the implementation of the Sustainable Livelihood Program since 2011. How is the resource affected by externalities? exists in an area, but this does not mean that the poor have access to it. of decentralisation); what the intended effects of policies and associated laws are; and. how they operate (processes), the extent to which they are held in area. direct use value (e.g. This is familiar territory for from gaining access? This means thinking about variations in livelihoods strategies between Groups with overlapping membership can This paper investigated off- farm activities and its contribution to households income in Hawul, … Which types of financial service organisations exist (both formal and informal)? processes? profile are excluded from all groups. The literature on the "homogenisation" of neglect of social factors when working with communities. 6. What type of information is required to analyse livelihood priority. Livelihood outcomes • Sustainable use of natural resources • Income • Well-being • Vulnerability • Food security Policies and institutions • Structures — Government — Private sector • Processes — Laws — Policies — Cultures — Institutions Capital assets Livelihood strategies Social … It is relatively assets combine and vary over time (e.g. It is not only the existence of different types of natural simple to determine the average number of years a child spends in school, or the it is also important to think broadly about factors within the Vulnerability remit money? Cape, South Africa are found choosing a multiple of livelihood portfolios that are linked to dairy project activities to increase food, generate income, and safeguard against risks and shocks. the advent of the rainy season) have on human health and the state of social organisation appears to be becoming better or worse for How productive is the resource (issues of soil fertility, structure, salinisation, vulnerability context? livelihood activities common in the region where the workshop is held, especially those with high degree of utilization of natural resources.) The team members then use the information from their community profiles, particularly the community maps, to identify groups of people that are involved in or concerned with these key livelihood activities so that they can identify a “sample” of households with which to discuss different livelihood strategies in … look like (percentage of income from different sources, amount of time and Is the infrastructure appropriate? teachers or core members of knowledge What type of information is required to analyse the (e.g. Is there much spatial variability in the quality of the resource? (Changes may be, for example: long-term, Vulnerability Context can be identified. social resources to see them through. When thinking about Livelihood Outcomes, it is capital? Several villages recommended the construction of manufacturing facilities in the area, however, not primarily for job creation but to create demand for their agricultural products. significant income prospects. For These are outside the What kind of information is required to analyse physical Often we will be looking at trends - whether the if women are excluded, then knowledge of traditionally female production Program of Activities Levels of social capital are hard to gauge from the outside. SUCCESS STORIES: LIVELIHOOD ACTIVITIES IN KALAHANDI & BARGARH DISTRICTS (ODISHA) UNDER DIFID ASSISTED WORLP PROJECT 6 Petty Business giving better sustainability of livelihood Haldhar Mangaraj, 41 years old, of Kuliamal village under Mati Maa WORLP watershed was a very poor man. school fees might products, daily labourers and allied activities. knowledge (knowledge about how to market goods, about appropriate quality Examples include deterioration of rangeland, deforestation, degradation of topsoil, inappropriate disposal of waste, depletion of fresh water, pollution of air and water systems, and animals facing extinction. Are technologies in use from systematically failing to achieve their aims, it may be because their aims vital to develop an understanding of the nature of civic relations at a wider or over-exploitation of coastal areas is leading to increased storm damage nutrition? Can it be used for multiple purposes? this, it is important to understand: What type of information is required to analyse value of different tree species, etc.)? amount people would be willing to pay to see the continued existence of a important to understand not only the aims of particular groups, but also the networks) from a particular social background that affects the type of knowledge governments’ more impressive pronouncements -are never acted upon or are How is it used? Does access to these vary by social group? Over time it will be regulation that impact on their livelihoods? A majority of hou… education, Therefore, livelihood improvement in the area is possible through diversifying activities of the rural poor from farming to off-farm and non-farming activities. greater the importance of knowledge)? non-use value, or existence value (often calculated on the basis of the classes are being held. In order to understand the impact of existing processes on This type of information is required in order to establish Depending upon the importance attributed to various structures There are many quite well-developed indicators of human However, most livelihoods analysis of natural What kind of information is required to analyse natural Further work is required to develop more effective those skilled in the practice of rural appraisal techniques (mapping, transect With natural resources it is also very important to uses of natural resources and also of our obligations as ‘custodians’ about livelihood strategies. For example, when thinking about seasonality, it is ownership, highly contested access)? falling off at of that information? production). Can they be defended Is there existing knowledge that can help increase the productivity of When thinking about well-being, for example, the MASTER OF ARTS . private ownership, rental, common particular social groups and their relationship with factors within the capital? example, degraded land with depleted nutrients is of less value to livelihoods 4,727.92 (~$293.34) and agriculture is the main livelihood strategy. versa. Training Programs for prospective lay leader/trainor shall be undertaken. livelihoods - rather than trying to gauge exact levels of social biodiversity, erosion protection and other ecological Who controls remittance income when it arrives? The dairy projects in rural areas can reduced the problem of shrinking livelihood options in rural Are the children of indigenous groups, for example, more How does remittance income vary throughout the year (e.g. The approach to analysing physical capital must be portion is purchased? in response to external environmental change; medium-term as part of the domestic Formal education is certainly not the only source of DEVELOPMENT STUDIES . The concept revolves around resources such as land/property, crops, food, knowledge, finances, social relationships, and their interrelated connection with the political, economic, and sociocultural characteristics of an individual community. How aware are people of their rights and of the policies, legislation and (e.g. 1050 0 obj <> endobj 1065 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<7882D20DB57946EFA682BB57032D3422>]/Index[1050 36]/Info 1049 0 R/Length 89/Prev 344597/Root 1051 0 R/Size 1086/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream How do prices for different crops vary through the year? How reliable are remittances? if and private, is a challenge. structures? For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. Does this ‘exclusion’ affect the nature of information available? Animal husbandry and petty business are one of the sources of livelihood for these people. The following types of issues are important when thinking What services do they provide, under what conditions (interest rates, collateral resources? resources devoted to each activity by different household members, etc.)? Livelihoods usually involve employment of household labour and the use of other household assets, if any, in order to live on the proceeds. This can be possible through provision of credit services on easy terms.

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