Cromwell finally engaged and defeated the new Scottish king at Worcester on 3 September 1651.. Lenthall replied, "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here. Some women were beaten and even killed, and many arrested. Originally published by [s.n. , Charles, meanwhile, decided to send an expeditionary force to relieve the French Huguenots, whom French royal troops held besieged in La Rochelle.  His beheading took place on a scaffold in front of the Banqueting House of the Palace of Whitehall on 30 January 1649. The London lobsters, Haselrig's Lobsters or just "Lobsters" were the name given to the cavalry unit raised and led by Sir Arthur Haselrig, a Parliamentarian who fought in the English Civil War. Charles also attempted to impose episcopacy on Scotland; the Scots' violent rejection of bishops and liturgical worship sparked the Bishops' Wars in 1639–1640.  The Triennial Act required Parliament to be summoned at least once in three years. The Lines of Communication were English Civil War fortifications commissioned by Parliament and built around London between 1642 and 1643 to protect the capital from attack by the Royalist armies of Charles I. Such military support for Protestants on the Continent potentially alleviated concerns about the King's marriage to a Catholic. Some formed bands of Clubmen to protect their localities from the worst excesses of the armies of both sides, but most found it impossible to withstand both King and Parliament. On 8 May 1660, it declared that Charles II had reigned as the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I in January 1649. The conflicts also involved wars with Scotland and Ireland, and civil wars within them. However, this need of military funds forced Charles I to call an English Parliament, which was not willing to grant the needed revenue unless he addressed their grievances. The turning point came in the late summer and early autumn of 1643, when the Earl of Essex's army forced the king to raise the Siege of Gloucester and then brushed the Royalists aside at the First Battle of Newbury (20 September 1643), to return triumphantly to London. The English Civil War was an intermittent nine-year confrontation between King and Parliament, but how was it won and how was it lost? The Martin Marprelate tracts (1588–1589), applying the pejorative name of prelacy to the church hierarchy, attacked the office of bishop with satire that deeply offended Elizabeth I and her Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift. Oxford and the English Civil War In the 17th century, Oxford played an important role in Britain’s civil war. The term "English Civil War" appears most often in the singular, although historians often divide the conflict into two or three separate wars. In 1637, John Bastwick, Henry Burton, and William Prynne had their ears cut off for writing pamphlets attacking Laud's views — a rare penalty for gentlemen, and one that aroused anger. At the end of the trial the 59 Commissioners (judges) found Charles I guilty of high treason as a "tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy". An English Civil War novel from a highly-acclaimed author - London, 1647. due punishment [be] inflicted upon the said Delinquents, do Declare all and every the said persons in Barbada's, Antego, Bermuda's and Virginia, that have contrived, abetted, aided or assisted those horrid Rebellions, or have since willingly joyned with them, to be notorious Robbers and Traitors, and such as by the Law of Nations are not to be permitted any manner of Commerce or Traffic with any people whatsoever; and do forbid to all manner of persons, Foreigners, and others, all manner of Commerce, Traffic and Correspondence whatsoever, to be used or held with the said Rebels in the Barbados, Bermuda's, Virginia and Antego, or either of them. On 3 June 1647, Cornet George Joyce of Thomas Fairfax's horse seized the King for the Army, after which the English Presbyterians and the Scots began to prepare for a fresh civil war, less than two years after the conclusion of the first, this time against "Independency", as embodied in the Army. However, Parliament lacked the power to force its will upon the monarch; its only leverage was the threat of withholding the financial means required to implement his plans.  The joint Royalist and Confederate forces under the Duke of Ormonde tried to eliminate the Parliamentary army holding Dublin by laying siege, but their opponents routed them at the Battle of Rathmines (2 August 1649). , In the 1970s, revisionist historians challenged both the Whig and the Marxist theories, notably in the 1973 anthology The Origins of the English Civil War (Conrad Russell ed.). On the evening of the surrender of Colchester, Parliamentarians had Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle shot. , Charles needed to suppress the rebellion in Scotland, but had insufficient funds to do so. The democratic element introduced into the watermen's company in 1642, for example, survived with vicissitudes until 1827. The execution of Charles I was particularly notable given that an English king had never been executed before. Ever since this Parliament has been known as the Long Parliament. During the English Civil War, the role of bishops as wielders of political power and upholders of the established church became a matter of heated political controversy. As King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was aff… After the regicide, Charles as the eldest son was publicly proclaimed King Charles II in the Royal Square of St. Helier, Jersey, on 17 February 1649 (after a first such proclamation in Edinburgh on 5 February 1649). The wars also involved the Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates. Fairfax soon drove the enemy into Colchester, but his first attack on the town met with a repulse and he had to settle down to a long siege.. The wars spanning all four countries are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.  Its majority faction, led by John Pym, used this appeal for money as a chance to discuss grievances against the Crown and oppose the idea of an English invasion of Scotland. He needed to seek money from a newly elected English Parliament in 1640. 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